Head of the Coalition of Non-Governmental Organizations of Tajikistan “From Legal Equality to Actual Equality”, which unite about 40 organizations from all regions of Tajikistan. Lawyer, member of the working group for promotion and development of the Law "On prevention of domestic violence" that was accepted in 2013.
As far back as 1993, Tajikistan ratified the UN International Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
Thanks to the Law on the prevention of domestic violence were opened offices for the prevention of domestic violence in Internal Affairs department, where inspectors are women.
The Population Fund, together with the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tajikistan, has created special crisis centers for victims of violence in several hospitals. Also there are several private shelters in the country.
G. Bobosadikova considers lack of general statistics on domestic violence one of the acute problems. In her opinion, more active work is needed to inform about this law and it’s extremely important active participation of men in this process.
“If we talk about awareness, then we need to involve all parties in this process, including parents. And the environment should not remain indifferent to cases of domestic violence: neighbors, friends, district committee”- she add.
Lawyer and independent gender consultant.
The expert thinks that the legislative framework of the Republic of Tajikistan on protecting women from discrimination and violence is not ideal, but sufficient to help women assert their rights.
To her opinion in Tajikistan the laws not work by the way they should work. Civil servants carry out their duties reluctantly, do things half way, corruption is flourishes. And in order to protect yourself, you must always make incredible efforts. Women haven’t enough money, knowledge, patience for it , and some women have vulnerable status (HIV, disability, refugees, divorced, former prisoner, elderly and others).
One of the most vulnerable groups of women in Tajikistan is women with a second or third wife status. The vast majority, in case of violence against them by husband or his relatives they are not fall within the scope of the Law on prevention of domestic violence, since the Law protects women who have been living with their husband in the same house for more than 6 months.
The expert suppose that for domestic violence it is necessary to provide a separate article of the Criminal Code, which should take into account the dependent and trusting nature of the relationship between the victim and injurer and the systematic nature of the violence.
Head of the NGO “Dunyoi Umed”, Kulyab region.
Lola Gulomova mentioned that the best option for women protection after divorce would be to amend the family law on mandatory targeted monetary compensation for house purchasing. It could be one room or a small apartment at women place of residence. She propose not to prescribe a specific amount of compensation, it must be established by a court based on housing prices in a specific region.
According to the expert the helplessness of women is most often associated with a low level of education and complete financial dependence on her husband and his relatives. To her opinion women public employment or self-employment could give them confidence in the future and in their strengths.
Head of the public association “Nadzhoti Kudakon”.
The organization deals with the problems of vulnerable women. NGO provide psychological and legal support to women who have experienced domestic violence and organize the advance training for them.
According to Kurbongul Kosimova, it is very difficult for women from vulnerable sectors in rural areas who have experienced domestic violence or divorce to defend their rights due to lack of money. All the services they need are expensive. For example, the cost of a forensic examination begins with 84 somoni and must be carried out in the first hours after the violence.According to the order of the Minister of Health, free medical assistance to victims of domestic violence includes only a doctor's examination.
K. Kosimova said that on behalf of public organizations of Tajikistan was submitted proposal to the legislative bodies to exclude the practice of install from the legislative base of the country and to make amendments to protect women rights after the divorce.
The problem of anonymous shelters for women is most acute, since relatives often don't leave women alone: they threaten, threaten to find and beat. Resource centers employers receive threats as well.
For such cases, in 14 maternity hospitals of our country were opened temporary stay rooms for victims of domestic violence (from 3 to 12 days). But these places of residence are not hiding from the rapist, and it doesn't save the victims from further persecution.
The medical facilities take into account only physical signs of violence: wounds, bruises, injuries. Although according to the Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence, violence is considered not only physical actions, but also sexual, economic, mental violence.
Bakhtidzhamol Mirzoyeva, psychologist of the public association
B. Mirzoeva thinks that more needs to write about the life of ordinary rural women, about their difficulties and problems. They live away from modern society, and they couldn't see other examples from life. How else can these women find out about this? The truly sincere articles of journalists about real people will definitely help someone.” – Mirzoeva said.
She add that most women in the regions haven't access to free vocational education: only a small percentage of girls receive special education before marriage. But even this doesn't save when looking for work - there are very few free jobs. This problem is largely related to the attitude of the daughters into the professional education of families: it is believed that a woman doesn't need to study after school, she should quickly get married and, thus, her parents delegates care of her on the shoulders of her husband.
When men faced with a lack of work and low earnings they often express their anger and dissatisfaction with their wives. Labor migration is not only an opportunity for them to find work, but also a way to escape from responsibility to their wife and children. Women in the regions are too far from more advanced central part of Tajikistan. They haven't access to information, the Internet, books, newspapers. They find out most of the news from neighbors and relatives. Women's resource support centers help them become more literate in terms of their rights and opportunities. But this is extremely not enough.
Being alone with their painful problems, these women often don't see a way out of their difficult life situations. They need to be given faith in their strength and knowledge. And, according to many experts working in the regions, a lot of government work is needed to increase the level of knowledge among young people.
Such kind of work will significantly expand the opportunities for self-fulfilling of both men and women and reduce social strain, which results in growing cases of domestic violence and hasty divorces at the moment.
Head of the public organization for gender issues "Madina".
Pamir women have more freedom and authority in families than women in other regions of Tajikistan. They have more authority in solving problems, more access to education.
In Soviet times, there was no such thing in GBAO that someone was not allowed to work. And now, this is directly related to the radicalization in the minds of young children. It is not clear what jealousy is: a wife should not go somewhere or work somewhere. It is believed that some danger awaits her at work outside the home. This attitude is gradually increasing, and the number of women who are not allowed to work is growing.
Often after divorces women from GBAO leave for labor migration to Russia in order to thus restore their economic independence.
N. Dodhudoeva thinks that speaking about women's rights; it is primarily her economic rights. A woman who is economically protected will never take an extreme step. Even with a divorce, which is undoubtedly stressful, she can be confident in her and her children survival. But the problem is not only in women, but also in legislation. According to N. Dodhudoeva, in Tajikistan there are many laws protecting a woman, but there is a law that indirectly violates her rights is the Property Law.
According to it on divorce, the wife and husband receive the property that is written on their name or one of them. Often, when they see that the family is going to break down, the property recorded on the husband name is transferred to the husband’s relatives. And in court, the ex-wife can no longer claim for it. And women with children who find themselves on the street after a divorce become victims of this particular law and she thinks that for the country parliament it is necessary to lobby for the adoption of a different approach when assessing property rights in the family.
“Almost all refusals to register a marriage in a registry office are property issues” – she said.
OTHER EXPERT OPINIONS
Experts name several reasons for the increased violence cases against women in recent decades:
- low education level of women.
Oftentimes they have only primary or incomplete secondary education.
- early marriages.
First of all parents considering their duty to give marriage to the daughters as soon as possible. It seems to them that they happily arrange their fate.
- stereotypical thinking about the role of women in the family and society.
According to stereotypes, a woman is given a place much lower than a man, she cannot complain, have her own opinion and must always agree with the opinion of her husband and his relatives.
The life without husband in Tajik society, at best, cause pity, and at worst - condemnation. Being married to many Tajik girls means certain and very desirable status in society, a kind of indicator of success life.
It’s the victim’s opinion that she herself is guilty of violence against her, that violence against women is a normal phenomenon that all women face. This attitude, according to many experts, comes from childhood, when the girl is told that she should be amenable and patient that her relatives should not be annoyed, otherwise a punishment will be considered that is justified because the victim is to blame for it.
- psychological abuse :
- insults, threats, blackmail;
- numerous bans;
- choice on behalf of victim: spouse, university, time of marriage or study at school, clothes, etc.
All these types of psychological violence in Tajik society are considered national traditions, which, according to the majority of the population, educate girls in order to become good wives. If we will decrypt it means to be submissive and endlessly patient.
It is believed that only in accordance with certain stereotypes, a woman is least likely to face violence in her direction. And if violence against her has occurred, then, first of all, it is necessary to look for the causes in her.
The saddest thing is that psychological violence occurs not only on the part of men, but also women: from side of mother-in-law, mothers, husband relatives, teachers or leaders, etc.